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#1 Fri 22nd Jun 2012 06:40 am

SW
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Registered: Thu 15th Jan 2009

Studies of Human Microbiome yield new insights

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/19/scien … ef=science

A number of recent reports shed light on how mothers promote the health of their children by shaping their microbiomes. In a study published last week in the journal PLoS One, Dr. Kjersti Aagaard-Tillery, an obstetrician at Baylor College of Medicine, and her colleagues described the vaginal microbiome in pregnant women. Before she started the study, Dr. Aagaard-Tillery expected this microbiome to be no different from that of women who weren’t pregnant.

“In fact, what we found is the exact opposite,” she said.

Early in the first trimester of pregnancy, she found, the diversity of vaginal bacteria changes significantly. Abundant species become rare, and vice versa.

One of the dominant species in the vagina of a pregnant woman, it turns out, is Lactobacillus johnsonii. It is usually found in the gut, where it produces enzymes that digest milk. It’s an odd species to find proliferating in the vagina, to say the least. Dr. Aagaard-Tillery speculates that changing conditions in the vagina encourage the bacteria to grow. During delivery, a baby will be coated by Lactobacillus johnsonii and ingest some of it. Dr. Aagaard-Tillery suggests that this inoculation prepares the infant to digest breast milk.

The baby’s microbiome continues to grow during breast-feeding. In a study of 16 lactating women published last year, Katherine M. Hunt of the University of Idaho and her colleagues reported that the women’s milk had up to 600 species of bacteria, as well as sugars called oligosaccharides that babies cannot digest. The sugars serve to nourish certain beneficial gut bacteria in the infants, the scientists said. The more the good bacteria thrive, the harder it is for harmful species to gain a foothold.

As the child grows and the microbiome becomes more ecologically complex, it also tutors the immune system. Ecological disruptions can halt this education. In March, Dr. Richard S. Blumberg of Harvard and his colleagues reported an experiment that demonstrates how important this education is.

The scientists reared mice that lacked any microbiome. In their guts and lungs, the germ-free mice developed abnormally high levels of immune cells called invariant natural killer T cells. Normally, these cells trigger a swift response from the immune system against viruses and other pathogens. In Dr. Blumberg’s microbe-free mice, however, they caused harmful inflammation. As adults, the mice were more likely to suffer from asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

This experiment parallels studies of children in recent years. Children who take high levels of antibiotics may be at greater risk of developing allergies and asthma later on, many researchers have suggested.

Dr. Blumberg and his colleagues found that they could prevent the mice from becoming ill by giving them bacteria while they were still young. Acquiring a microbiome as an adult did not help the rodents.

We are discovering how amazingly intricate EVERYTHING really is and how much we still have to learn.


HOPE is the thing with feathers   
That perches in the soul,   
And sings the tune without the words,   
And never stops at all        Emily Dickinson

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#2 Tue 26th Jun 2012 07:19 am

Valentine
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Registered: Mon 11th Feb 2008

Re: Studies of Human Microbiome yield new insights

Wow.  That's absolutely amazing.  You post the best stuff!


Kindness is the language the blind can see and the deaf can hear.  Mark Twain

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#3 Tue 26th Jun 2012 10:34 am

Merci
Member
Registered: Fri 25th Jan 2008

Re: Studies of Human Microbiome yield new insights

Thank you for another great post! Information I know, but explained in excellent detail. I have been wondering when science is going to admit to c section birth babies missing out on the bacteria designed for birth...

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#4 Tue 26th Jun 2012 12:52 pm

Sencha
Member
From: England
Registered: Sat 26th Jan 2008

Re: Studies of Human Microbiome yield new insights

That's amazing! And Merci, I'd never heard about C sections denying babies essential bacteria - fascinating stuff! Speaking of kids' health, I read on Mercola.com the other day about an interesting Italian case regarding the MMR jab.

"The Italian Health Ministry recently conceded that the MMR vaccine caused autism in a now nine-year-old boy. The Bocca family has subsequently been awarded a 15-year annuity totaling 174,000 Euros (just under $220,000), plus reimbursement for court costs. The judge ruled the boy “has been damaged by irreversible complications due to vaccination (prophylaxis trivalent MMR”

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/artic … L_artNew_1


The article suggested a media black-out in the US as of a couple of days ago. I wonder if anyone mainstream will grow a pair and run the story...

Last edited by Sencha (Tue 26th Jun 2012 12:53 pm)


'Tea is drunk to forget the din of the world' - T’ien Yiheng.

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